Man:ls

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NAME

      ls - list directory contents


SYNOPSIS

      ls [OPTION]... [FILE]...


DESCRIPTION

      List  information  about  the  FILEs  (the  current directory by default).  Sort entries
alphabetically if none of -cftuSUX nor --sort.


      Mandatory arguments to long options are mandatory for short options too.


      -a, --all
do not hide entries starting with .


      -A, --almost-all
do not list implied . and ..


      --author
print the author of each file


      -b, --escape
print octal escapes for nongraphic characters


      --block-size=SIZE
use SIZE-byte blocks


      -B, --ignore-backups
do not list implied entries ending with ~


      -c     with -lt: sort by, and show, ctime (time of  last  modification  of  file  status
information) with -l: show ctime and sort by name otherwise: sort by ctime


      -C     list entries by columns


      --color[=WHEN]
control whether color is used to distinguish file types. WHEN may be ‘never’,
‘always’, or ‘auto’


      -d, --directory
list directory entries instead of contents, and do not dereference symbolic links


      -D, --dired
generate output designed for Emacs’ dired mode


      -f     do not sort, enable -aU, disable -lst


      -F, --classify
append indicator (one of */=@|) to entries


      --format=WORD
across -x, commas -m, horizontal -x, long -l, single-column -1, verbose -l, vertical -C


      --full-time
like -l --time-style=full-iso


      -g     like -l, but do not list owner


      -G, --no-group
inhibit display of group information


      -h, --human-readable
print sizes in human readable format (e.g., 1K 234M 2G)


      --si   likewise, but use powers of 1000 not 1024


      -H, --dereference-command-line
follow symbolic links listed on the command line


      --dereference-command-line-symlink-to-dir
follow each command line symbolic link
that points to a directory


      --indicator-style=WORD append indicator with style WORD to entry names:
none (default), classify (-F), file-type (-p)


      -i, --inode
print index number of each file


      -I, --ignore=PATTERN
do not list implied entries matching shell PATTERN


      -k     like --block-size=1K


      -l     use a long listing format


      -L, --dereference
when showing file information for a symbolic link, show information for the file
the link references rather than for the link itself


      -m     fill width with a comma separated list of entries


      -n, --numeric-uid-gid
like -l, but list numeric UIDs and GIDs


      -N, --literal
print raw entry names (don’t treat e.g. control characters specially)


      -o     like -l, but do not list group information


      -p, --file-type
append indicator (one of /=@|) to entries


      -q, --hide-control-chars
print ? instead of non graphic characters


      --show-control-chars
show non graphic characters as-is (default unless program is ‘ls’ and output is a terminal)


      -Q, --quote-name
enclose entry names in double quotes


      --quoting-style=WORD
use quoting style WORD for entry names: literal, locale, shell, shell-always, c,
escape


      -r, --reverse
reverse order while sorting


      -R, --recursive
list subdirectories recursively


      -s, --size
print size of each file, in blocks


      -S     sort by file size


      --sort=WORD
extension -X, none -U, size -S, time -t, version -v
status -c, time -t, atime -u, access -u, use -u


      --time=WORD
show time as WORD instead of modification time: atime, access, use, ctime or status;
use specified time as sort key if --sort=time


      --time-style=STYLE
show times using style STYLE: full-iso, long-iso, iso, locale, +FORMAT


             FORMAT is interpreted like ‘date’; if FORMAT is FORMAT1<newline>FORMAT2,  FORMAT1
applies to non-recent files and FORMAT2 to recent files; if STYLE is prefixed
with ‘posix-’, STYLE takes effect only outside the POSIX locale


      -t     sort by modification time


      -T, --tabsize=COLS
assume tab stops at each COLS instead of 8


      -u     with -lt: sort by, and show, access time with -l: show access time  and  sort  by
name otherwise: sort by access time


      -U     do not sort; list entries in directory order


      -v     sort by version


      -w, --width=COLS
assume screen width instead of current value


      -x     list entries by lines instead of by columns


      -X     sort alphabetically by entry extension


      -1     list one file per line


      --help display this help and exit


      --version
output version information and exit


      SIZE  may  be (or may be an integer optionally followed by) one of following: kB 1000, K
1024, MB 1000*1000, M 1024*1024, and so on for G, T, P, E, Z, Y.


      By default, color is not used to distinguish types of  files.   That  is  equivalent  to
using --color=none. Using the --color option without the optional WHEN argument is
equivalent to using --color=always. With --color=auto, color codes are output only if
standard output is connected to a terminal (tty).


AUTHOR

      Written by Richard Stallman and David MacKenzie.


REPORTING BUGS

      Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.


COPYRIGHT

      Copyright © 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
This is free software; see the source for copying conditions. There is NO warranty; not
even for MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
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