The File System

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'''Introduction'''
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One of the first things people coming from Windows notice about Linux is the different way the drives, directory structure and files are ordered/displayed. Both operating systems use what is called a hierarchial directory structure. All this means is that files are arranged in a tree-like structure with directories containing subdirectories and files, subdirectories containing subdirectories and files, branching downward into more complexity like an upside-down tree.
One of the first things people coming from Windows notice about Linux is the different way the drives, directory structure and files are ordered/displayed. Both operating systems use what is called a hierarchial directory structure. All this means is that files are arranged in a tree-like structure with directories containing subdirectories and files, subdirectories containing subdirectories and files, branching downward into more complexity like an upside-down tree.
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Click on the filenames below to learn about the linux system;                          
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''Click on the filenames below or read on to learn about the linux system; ''                         
                                             [[The_Root|/]]
                                             [[The_Root|/]]
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                                       [[Floppy Help]]
                                       [[Floppy Help]]
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                                       [[Flash devices]]                                
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                                       [[Flash devices]]
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                                       [[Camera Help]]  
                                       [[Camera Help]]  
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'''Basics'''
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One of the major things that people must get used to when switching to Linux is where it stores programs. Windows tends to store most programs in C:/Program Files, and people have a hard time finding their installed programs in Linux because it stores them in many places. These can be grouped into two main groups:<br>
One of the major things that people must get used to when switching to Linux is where it stores programs. Windows tends to store most programs in C:/Program Files, and people have a hard time finding their installed programs in Linux because it stores them in many places. These can be grouped into two main groups:<br>
1. The first group contains the system and normal user binary folders. Most applications store their executable binary (similar to an exe) in one of these folders. They are /bin , /usr/bin and /usr/local/bin. <br>
1. The first group contains the system and normal user binary folders. Most applications store their executable binary (similar to an exe) in one of these folders. They are /bin , /usr/bin and /usr/local/bin. <br>

Revision as of 22:40, 26 September 2006

Introduction

One of the first things people coming from Windows notice about Linux is the different way the drives, directory structure and files are ordered/displayed. Both operating systems use what is called a hierarchial directory structure. All this means is that files are arranged in a tree-like structure with directories containing subdirectories and files, subdirectories containing subdirectories and files, branching downward into more complexity like an upside-down tree.

Click on the filenames below or read on to learn about the linux system;

                                            /
                                            |                                                
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------       
|       |     |     |      |      |      |    |     |     |     |       |     |      |      |                                   
/bin   /boot    /dev  /etc    /home   /lib  /media  /mnt   /opt  /root    /sbin    /srv   /tmp   /usr    /var                                  
                    |      |             |    +                                      |      |
   ------------------      |             +    |      --------------------------------|      |
   |             ----------|             |    -      |            -------------------|      |
   |             |         |             -    |      |            |      ------------|      |
   |             |         |             |    +      |            |      |           |      |         
   |             |         |             +    |      |            |      |           |      |         
/etc/init.d  /home/usera  /home/userb       |    -   /usr/bin  /usr/include  /usr/share  /usr/src  /var/run  
                           |             |    |                          |
                           |             -    |                          |
        -------------------|             |    +            --------------|
        |                  |             +    |            |             |
        |                  |             |    |            |             |
home/userb/pictures  home/userb/Desktop  |    -     /usr/share/doc   /usr/share/man 
                                         -    | 
                                         |    +
                                         |    |
                                      Floppy Help
                                      Flash devices                                  
                                      Camera Help 

Basics

One of the major things that people must get used to when switching to Linux is where it stores programs. Windows tends to store most programs in C:/Program Files, and people have a hard time finding their installed programs in Linux because it stores them in many places. These can be grouped into two main groups:
1. The first group contains the system and normal user binary folders. Most applications store their executable binary (similar to an exe) in one of these folders. They are /bin , /usr/bin and /usr/local/bin.
2. The second group is where the "administration" applications are stored. You typically need super user (root) permissions to execute one of these executables. These directories are /sbin and /usr/sbin.
3. Finally, some users prefer to install softare and add-on packages that are not part of the default installation into the /opt directory.


References; http://tldp.org/LDP/Linux-Filesystem-Hierarchy/html/c23.html

http://www.pathname.com/fhs/pub/fhs-2.3.html

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